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5 Open Source Firewalls You Should Know About
Despite the fact that pfSense and m0n0wall seem to get most of the attention in the open source firewall/router market, with pfSense being spun off from m0n0wall in recent years, there are some excellent firewall/router distributions out there. which can be obtained on both Linux and BSD. All these projects are based on their respective OS walls. Linux, for example, incorporates netfilter and iptables into its kernel. OpenBSD, on the other hand, uses PF (Packet Filter), which replaced IPFilter as FreeBSD’s default firewall in 2001. Below is a (non-exhaustive) list of some of the firewall/router distributions available for Linux and BSD, along with some of their capabilities.
 Smooth wall
The Smoothwall open source project was created in 2000 to develop and maintain Smoothwall Express – a free firewall that includes its own security-hardened GNU/Linux operating system and an easy-to-use web interface. SmoothWall Server Edition was the initial product from SmoothWall Ltd., launched on 11-11-2001. It was basically SmoothWall GPL 0.9.9 with support provided by the company. SmoothWall Corporate Server 1.0 was released on 12/17/2001, a closed source fork of SmoothWall GPL 0.9.9SE. The corporate server includes additional features such as SCSI support, along with the ability to increase functionality through add-on modules. These modules included SmoothGuard (content filtering proxy), SmoothZone (multiple DMZ) and SmoothTunnel (advanced VPN features). Other modules released over time included traffic shaping, antivirus and anti-spam modules.
A variant of Corporate Server called SmoothWall Corporate Guardian was released, integrating a fork of DansGuardian known as SmoothGuardian. School Guardian was created as a variant of Corporate Guardian, adding Active Directory/LDAP authentication support and firewall features in a package designed specifically for use in schools. December 2003 saw the release of smoothwall Express 2.0 and a comprehensive set of written documents. The alpha version of Express 3 was released in September 2005.
Smoothwall is designed to work effectively on older and cheaper devices; it will run on any Pentium-class CPU and above, with a recommended minimum of 128MB of RAM. Additionally, there is a 64-bit build for Core 2 systems. Here is a list of features:
- Supports LAN, DMZ and Wireless networks, plus external
- External connection via: Static Ethernet, DHCP Ethernet, PPPoE, PPPoA using various USB and PCI DSL modems
- Forward port, DMZ pinhole
- External filtering
- Timed access
- Easy to use Quality of Service (QoS)
- Traffic statistics, including per-interface and per-IP totals for weeks and months
- IDS via automatically updated Snort rules
- UPnP support
- List of bad IP addresses to block
- Web proxy for accelerated browsing
- POP3 e-mail proxy with Anti-Virus
- IM proxy with real-time log viewing
- Responsive web interface using AJAX techniques to provide real-time information
- Real-time traffic charts
- All rules have an optional comment field for ease of use
- Record viewers for all major subsystems and firewall activity
- Backup configuration
- Simple one-click application of all pending updates
- Shutdown and restart for the user interface
- Time service for the network
- Develop Smoothwall yourself using self-hosted Devel builds.
A stateful firewall built on the Linux netfilter framework that was originally a part of the SmoothWall Linux firewall, IPCop is a Linux distribution that aims to provide a simple-to-manage firewall appliance based on computer hardware. Version 1.4.0 was introduced in 2004, based on the LFS distribution and a 2.4 kernel, and the current stable branch is 2.0.X, released in 2011. IPCop v. 2.0 includes several significant improvements over 1.4, including the following:
- Based on Linux kernel 2.6.32
- New hardware support, including Cobalt, SPARC and PPC platforms
- New installer, which allows you to install on flash or hard disk, and select interface cards and assign them to separate networks
- Access to all web interface pages is now password protected
- A new user interface, including a new scheduler page, more status menu pages, an updated proxy page, a simplified DHCP server page, and an overhauled firewall menu
- Including OpenVPN support for virtual private networks, as a replacement for IPsec
IPCop v. 2.1 includes bug fixes and a number of additional improvements, including the use of Linux kernel 3.0.41 and the URL filter service. Additionally, there are many add-ons available, such as advanced QoS (traffic shaping), email virus checking, traffic mirroring, extended proxy control interfaces, and many more.
IPFire is a free Linux distribution which can act as a router and firewall and can be maintained through a web interface. The distribution provides select server daemons and can be easily extended to a SOHO server. It offers enterprise-grade network protection and focuses on security, stability and ease of use. A number of add-ons can be installed to add more features to the base system.
IPFire uses a stateful packet inspection (SPI) firewall, which is built on top of netfilter. During IPFire installation, the network is configured in separate segments. This segmented security scheme means that there is a place for every machine on the network. Each segment represents a group of computers that share a common level of security. “Green” represents a safe area. This is where all regular customers will reside and usually consists of a local wired network. Customers on Green can access all other network segments without restrictions. “Red” indicates danger or connection to the Internet. Nothing from Red is allowed to pass through the firewall unless specifically configured by the administrator. “Blue” represents the wireless portion of the local network. Since the wireless network has the potential for abuse, it is uniquely identified and specific rules govern clients on it. Clients on this network segment must be explicitly allowed before they can access the network. “Orange” represents the demilitarized zone (DMZ). Any server that is publicly accessible is separated from the rest of the network here to limit security breaches. Additionally, the firewall can be used to control Internet access from any segment. This feature gives the network administrator complete control over how their network is configured and secured.
One of the unique features of IPFire is the extent to which it incorporates intrusion detection and intrusion prevention. IPFire includes Snort, the free network intrusion detection system (NIDS), which analyzes network traffic. If something abnormal happens, it will record the event. IPFire allows you to view these events in the web interface. For automatic prevention, IPFire has an add-on called Guardian which can be optionally installed.
IPFIre brings many front-end drivers for high-performance virtualization and can run on several virtualization platforms, including KVM, VMware, Xen, and others. However, there is always the possibility that the security of the VM container is somehow bypassed and a hacker gains access beyond the VPN. Therefore, it is not suggested to use IPFire as a virtual machine in a production level environment.
In addition to these features, IPFire includes all the features you’d expect to see in a firewall/router, including a stateful firewall, a web proxy, support for virtual private networks (VPNs) using IPSec and OpenVPN, and traffic shaping.
Since IPFire is based on a recent version of the Linux kernel, it supports most of the latest hardware such as 10Gbit network cards and a variety of wireless devices out of the box. The minimum system requirements are:
- Intel Pentium I (i586)
- 128MB of RAM
- 2 GB of hard disk space
Some plugins have additional requirements to run smoothly. In a system that fits the hardware requirements, IPFire is capable of serving hundreds of clients simultaneously.
 Coastal wall
Shorewall is an open source firewall tool for Linux. Unlike the other firewall/routers mentioned in this article, Shorewall does not have a graphical user interface. Instead, Shorewall is configured through a set of plain-text configuration files, although a Webmin module is available separately.
Since Shorewall is essentially a frontend for netfilter and iptables, the usual firewall functionality is available. It is capable of doing network address translation (NAT), port forwarding, logging, routing, traffic shaping, and virtual interfaces. With Shorewall, it’s easy to set up different zones, each with different rules, making it easy to have, for example, relaxed rules on the company intranet, while tightening up incoming traffic for the Internet.
While Shorewall used to use a shell-based compiler frontend, as of version 4, it also uses a Perl-based frontend. IPv6 address support started with version 4.4.3. The latest stable version is 4.5.18.
pfSense is an open source firewall/router distribution based on FreeBSD as a fork of the m0n0wall project. It’s a stateful firewall that includes many of m0n0wall’s functionalities, such as NAT/port forwarding, VPNs, traffic shaping, and portal capture. It also goes beyond m0n0wall, offering many advanced features, such as load balancing and failover, the ability to only accept traffic from certain operating systems, easy MAC address spoofing, and VPN using the OpenVPN and L2TP protocols. Unlike m0n0wall, in which the focus is more on embedded usage, pfSense’s focus is on the full computer installation. However, a version intended for embedded use is provided.
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