What Can I Give My 5 Month Old For Fever The Victorian Era and the British Empire

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The Victorian Era and the British Empire

What happened during the Victorian era?

The Victorian Era was the period of Queen Victoria’s reign, from June 20, 1837 to her death on January 22, 1901.

The era followed the Georgian period (1714 to 1837, named after the Hanoverian kings George I, George II, George III and George IV) and was characterized by a class society that included upper, middle and the lower class.

It was a period of old-fashioned ideals, famous for corsets, bonnets, hats, bustles and petticoats, and the entrepreneurial spirit of the self-made man.

Charles Dickens became famous as the greatest novelist of the Victorian era, and Florence Nightingale (1820-1910), a British nurse known as “The Lady with the Lamp,” whose experiences during the Crimean War laid the foundation for modern nursing .

Coronation of Queen Victoria

Queen Victoria’s father died when she was just 8 months old, and her three uncles also died, leaving her heir to the throne when she was 18.

Her coronation took place on Thursday 28 June 1838, just over a year after she succeeded to the throne with Lord Melbourne, her first prime minister, who trained her in the art of politics.

Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, her first cousin, became consorts of Queen Victoria from their marriage on 10 February 1840 until his death in 1861.

Their children married into royal and noble families, earning Victoria the nickname, “the grandmother of Europe” and spreading hemophilia to European royalty.

Prince Albert died of typhoid fever on 14 December 1861 at Windsor Castle with Queen Victoria and five of his children at his bedside.

The Belle Époque (1871 – 1914)

The Belle Époque (La Belle Époque, “The Beautiful Age”) between the end of the Franco-Prussian War in 1871 and the outbreak of World War I in 1914 saw the French arts flourish, with many masterpieces of literature, music, theater and visual art flourished.

In Britain and the rest of Europe, it was characterized by optimism, regional peace, economic prosperity, colonial expansion and technological, scientific and cultural innovations.

Industrial Revolution

The dramatic forces of change unleashed by the Industrial Revolution made the British Empire the world’s first industrial power, producing much of the coal, iron, steel and textiles during the Victorian era.

The first Industrial Revolution (1760 – 1840) in Great Britain saw the death of rural life as cities expanded rapidly and the factory system was established, centered on textiles.

Three of the most significant inventions of this period were the coke oven, the steam engine and the spinning jenny which increased production possibilities.

The Second Industrial Revolution (1850 – 1914) focused on cost-effective steel production, the expansion of railroads, advances in electricity, improved communication, oil, and the automobile.

Alexander Graham Bell (March 3, 1847 – August 2, 1922) Scottish inventor, scientist and engineer invented and patented the telephone in 1876, while Samuel Finley Breese Morse (April 27, 1791 – April 2, 1872), an American inventor and painter, invented the electric telegraph (1832-35) and then developed Morse code (1838).

Child Labor in the Victorian Era.

Child labor during the Industrial Revolution became notorious for the conditions under which children were employed, depriving them of their childhood, their ability to attend school, and being mentally, physically, socially and morally harmful.

Children made up more than 25 percent of the British workforce in mines, factories and workshops.

Many started working when they were only four or five years old working long hours in dangerous working conditions.

In the coal mines, children crawled through tunnels too narrow and low for adults, and there were young boys who worked as chimney sweeps in wealthy homes to remove soot.

The famous author, Charles Dickens, worked at the age of 12 in a tannery, with his family in debtor’s prison.

Lord Shaftesbury

Anthony Ashley Cooper, 7th Earl of Shaftesbury (28 April 1801 – 1 October 1885) was a British politician, philanthropist and social reformer who became known as “The Poor Man’s Earl” for his advocacy of better treatment for the working classes.

He was also president of the Ragged School Union, which promoted education for society’s most disadvantaged children.

Lord Shaftesbury believed that education was a way of freeing children from poverty.

The Factory Acts he supported ensured improved conditions for children and women which included:

*the maximum working day should be 12 hours.

*prohibition of work for children under 9 years of age.

*Children aged 9 to 13 to be limited to a 48-hour work week, with part-time school attendance.

British Empire

At just 4 feet-11 inches tall, Victoria was a towering symbol of the British Empire.

Her reign paved the way for a modern and prosperous Great Britain.

From the mid-18th century, the Royal Navy was the most powerful in the world and played a key role in the establishment of the British Empire.

Victories over Napoleonic France increased Britain’s influence abroad when Lord Nelson’s fleet defeated the French and Spanish at the Battle of Trafalgar in 1805 and the Duke of Wellington defeated Napoleon Bonaparte at Waterloo in Belgium in 1815.

Queen Victoria became Empress of India on the advice of her seventh Prime Minister Benjamin Disraeli.

He endorsed his imperialist policies that led to the scramble for Africa in the 1880s and 1890s with the other Great European Powers.

Britain became the most powerful nation in the world with a quarter of the world’s population owing allegiance to the Queen.

William Ewart Gladstone (29 December 1809 – 19 May 1898) was a Liberal politician who served for 12 years as Prime Minister of Great Britain in four terms beginning in 1868 and ending in 1894.

His political doctrine known as Gladstonian liberalism was to reduce privilege and open established institutions to all, such as universities and the military.

Political parties during the Victorian era

The two main political parties during the Victorian era were the Whigs/Liberals and the Conservatives.

The Whigs were an important British political group from the late 17th to early 19th century who wanted limited royal power and increased parliamentary power.

The Labor Party was founded in 1900, having grown out of the trade union movement and socialist parties of the 19th century that overtook the Liberal Party, to become the main opposition to the Conservative Party in the early 1920s.

Prominent politicians during the Victorian era included Lord Melbourne, Sir Robert Peel, Lord Derby, Lord Palmerston, Benjamin Disraeli, William Gladstone and Lord Salisbury.

Lord Melbourne (a Whig) who was the British Prime Minister from 16 July to 14 November 1834 and from 18 April 1835 to 30 August 1841 was a close friend and chief political adviser to Queen Victoria during the early years of her reign ( from June 20, 1837).

The Crimean War

The Crimean War (1853–6) was a major European military conflict of the 19th century that saw an alliance of the Ottoman Empire, France, Britain and Sardinia against Tsarist Russia.

The immediate cause involved disputes over the Orthodox holy sites in Jerusalem and the rights of the Orthodox, Christian minorities in the Holy Land, which were occupied by the Ottoman Empire.

French Emperor Napoleon III (Catholic) refused.

Having received promises of support from France and Britain, the Turkish Ottoman Empire declared war on Russia in October 1853.

Light Brigade Leader

The Charge of the Light Brigade which took place during the Battle of Balaklava on 25 October 1854 of the Crimean War was a British light cavalry force with fast horses and soldiers armed with lances and swords.

Through misinterpreted orders, the Light Brigade of 670 cavalry launched a vertical attack against the heavily defended Russian troops.

The legend was made famous by Alfred, Lord Tennyson in his 1855 poem to honor their bravery and sacrifice: “Honor the charge they made! Honor the Light Brigade, Noble six hundred!”

Florence Nightingale

Florence Nightingale, (1820 – 1910) was a British nurse and founder of modern nursing.

She became famous for her nursing work during the Crimean War (1854 – 56) and a Victorian icon as ‘The Lady with the Lamp’ who made her nightly rounds of wounded and dying soldiers.

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